More than 1 billion people throughout the world rely on fish as a source of protein, and small-scale fisheries support the livelihoods of at least 500 million people worldwide. However, marine ecosystems and traditional coastal livelihoods are facing unprecedented pressures from overfishing and climate change. 90% of global fish stocks are either overfished or fully fished.
Experience from around the world shows that managing fisheries and marine resources works best when responsibility is placed in the hands of local communities. This is particularly true in low-income countries, where there is often limited central capacity and infrastructure for fisheries management and conservation.
We empower coastal communities to manage their own resources, developing rights-based fisheries management plans aiming to sustain local fisheries and safeguard marine biodiversity.
Effective fishery management measures don’t always have to be large-scale or long-term. Periodic, short-term fishery closures targeted at key species during periods of rapid growth in their life cycles can boost productivity, resulting in bigger catches and bigger incomes for fishers.
Octopus fisheries are a vitally important source of income for coastal communities throughout much of the western Indian Ocean, with the majority of catches sold and exported to overseas markets, predominantly in Europe. In response to growing exploitation of octopus throughout this region, the past decade has seen a groundswell of grassroots management efforts.
The periodic octopus fishery closure model involves short-term closures of a village’s octopus gleaning grounds. At any given time, up to a quarter of a community’s fishing area may be closed for around three months. This approach has been shown to result in dramatic increases in octopus landings and fisher incomes in the month after closed areas are reopened to fishing (Oliver et al, 2015). It was first piloted in southern Madagascar in 2004, in collaboration with the Institut Halieutique et des Sciences Marines (IHSM) of the University of Toliara, the Ministry of Fisheries, seafood collection and export companies, and partner NGOs.
In Madagascar this model has gone viral, inspiring a grassroots revolution in fisheries management which has seen more than 250 closures along the country’s southern, western and northern coastlines to date. The approach benefits from broad support from the entire seafood supply chain, with fishers and buyers at pilot sites now contributing to the modest costs of establishing and managing the closures.
This model has inspired new fisheries policy in Madagascar, and has been replicated by the neighbouring Mauritian island of Rodrigues annually since 2012, and by communities on the Tanzanian island of Pemba in 2015.
Adoption of this locally led approach to fisheries management continues to grow each year in Madagascar and beyond. The model has been adapted to other small-scale invertebrate fisheries, including mangrove crab in western Madagascar and spiny lobster on the southeast coast.
Following the success of fisheries management experiences from Madagascar and Mauritius over the past decade, we are now working to support communities, NGOs and fisheries partners to replicate this model throughout the region including in Tanzania, Kenya, Mozambique and the Comoros.
Temporary fishery closures are a powerful management tool that can demonstrate the economic benefits of fisheries management rapidly, to fishers and seafood buyers alike. By producing tangible benefits to coastal communities, this approach can build robust support for broader marine management initiatives.
Importantly, these closures have provided the catalyst for encouraging community engagement in ambitious marine conservation efforts, including the creation of permanent marine reserves, now established at a number of sites by communities in parallel with temporary fishery closures within locally managed marine areas (LMMAs).
Lionfish, native to the Indo-Pacific, were accidentally released into the Atlantic in the 1980s and first documented in Belizean waters in 2008. With an extremely high rate of reproduction and no native predators in the Caribbean, the species poses a serious threat to the region’s reefs, given its voracious appetite for juvenile fish and invertebrates.
Since 2011, Blue Ventures has pioneered efforts to commercialise Belize’s nascent lionfishery by working with fishers, consumers, restaurants, fishing cooperatives and seafood distributors.
The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) eco-label guarantees that a fishery is managed sustainably. This implies that the stock is not in decline, the fishery has no negative impacts on the environment, and an adequate management system is in place.
MSC eco-certification of the octopus fishery of southwest Madagascar would attract international interest in this fishery, further strengthen sustainable management practices, and potentially generate larger economic benefits for fishers and exporters.
The octopus fishery of southwest Madagascar has undergone a pre-assessment for MSC certification and is currently implementing a Fisheries Improvement Plan (FIP) to reach the standards required to apply for full certification as a sustainable fishery. This FIP involves all stakeholders (fishers, the IHSM of the University of Toliara, the Ministry of Fisheries, seafood collection and export companies, and partner NGOs) working together to improve the fishery.
These partners meet quarterly, as the Comité de Gestion de la Pêche aux Poulpes (CGP) platform in the regional capital of Toliara, to take all decisions necessary for the proper management of the fishery.
We work on behalf of traditional fishing communities to promote a rights-based approach to fisheries management. We advocate for fairer, healthier and more sustainable fisheries, to benefit marine life and the hundreds of millions of coastal people that depend on fishing.
Our research has demonstrated the critical role that small-scale fisheries play in underpinning the livelihoods and food security of some of the world’s poorest communities (Barnes-Mauthe et al, 2013). Our analyses of EU fisheries agreements in the Indian Ocean have drawn global attention to the need for a more equitable basis for north-south industrial fisheries agreements (Le Manach et al, 2012).
We are working with the MSC to help small-scale fishery managers in the developing world introduce fisheries improvement projects, bringing market incentives for sustainable fishing to some of the hardest to reach coastal communities. We are also working with the Sea Around Us project to help governments develop strategies to improve awareness of the importance of small-scale fisheries.
We’re harnessing mobile technology to address the challenge of data-deficiency in small-scale fisheries, capitalising on the rapid expansion of mobile technology and connectivity in low-income nations.
Using open access software, freely available to all, our research teams have developed smartphone- and tablet-based fisheries monitoring forms, to capture landings information in remote villages along Madagascar’s west coast. We work closely with community members to design forms that are suitable for use by those with low levels of literacy, or limited previous experience with touchscreens, or even mobile phones.
By empowering communities for fisheries monitoring in this way, this approach can capture data across vast distances, at low cost, and in real time. Where necessary, solar chargers enable community surveyors to gather data in the most remote ‘off grid’ environments, and the devices used can capture and store data in areas without mobile data coverage, before automatically syncing with the cloud as soon as a user accesses the nearest signal.
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