Many developing countries are facing challenges of poor health, unmet family needs, gender inequity, food insecurity, environmental degradation and vulnerability to climate change. One such country is Madagascar, where 78% of the population lives on less than $1.90 per day, as estimated by the World Bank in 2019. Along its southwest coastline is the Grand Recif de Tulear, a 450 km barrier reef on which approximately 80% of these communities depend for their livelihoods and food security. Semi-nomadic fishing communities along the southwest coast are some of the poorest and most isolated in the country; almost wholly reliant on the marine environment for food, income, transport and cultural identity. In recent years they have observed declining fish catches, largely owing to pressure related to market-driven exploitation, as well as increasing subsistence demands from a growing coastal population.