- Many reefs are recovering well from 1998 mass coral bleaching damage with all countries having some areas with good coral cover, and other areas with slow or little coral recovery;
- Mean live coral cover has continued to increase on some reefs of the Seychelles and Comoros, but has decreased on some reefs in Mauritius and La Réunion;
- The stresses causing low coral cover are mostly from human activities, such as trampling, pollution, chronic sedimentation and over-fishing;
- Cyclones and coral bleaching are the most important natural stresses damaging the reefs, with some bleaching recorded annually since 2000 in parts of the region;
- There is little information on the status of seagrass and mangrove areas in many countries, due to poor or no monitoring programs;
- Most countries have no active socio-economic monitoring, and ecological and socio-economic monitoring results are not reported regularly to reef managers;
- Recommendations include increasing efforts to reduce human impacts and increase monitoring within and outside MPAs, and especially on more remote reefs;
- Cooperation between the regional network and global or regional programs is needed to increase awareness in coastal communities of coral reef issues, and to make monitoring of coral reefs financially sustainable with regular mechanisms to feed ecological and socio-economic monitoring results into management processes.