Small-scale fisheries are an important part of many people’s livelihoods in Timor-Leste but there is relatively little data available to inform sustainable management of this sector. Despite the significant contribution of women to the fishery sector in Timor-Leste, as fishers and in post-harvest processing, their inclusion in fisheries management decision-making is limited, reflecting broader gender inequality. To collect valuable catch monitoring data, a network of women’s groups known as Grupu Monitorizasaun Peskas was established in 2018 in five communities: Ilik-namu (Atauro), Fatumeta (Behau), and Ma’abat (Manatuto), Beto Tasi and Li’an-lidu, with the support of Blue Ventures. The all-women groups conduct participatory fisheries monitoring by collecting fisheries catch data, to inform fisheries management, empower women as fishery data collectors, and provide access to learning opportunities within and beyond marine management. This report presents the findings on fishing activities and catch composition from data collected by the monitoring programme in three of the five communities. The report also explores the role of the monitoring groups within community-based fisheries management, examines potential opportunities to increase women’s participation in fisheries management, and reflects on the power dynamics and social processes during the programme implementation. We also identify areas where further evaluation of the programme is needed and provide recommendations.